Challenges and opportunities of human development in the Central Asia countries

Zaure K. Chulanova, Kairatkyzy G.


The aim of the work is to assess the achieved level of human development in Central Asian countries and to determine its potential. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that at the present stage of world development these issues are considered in direct relationship with the growth rate and competitiveness of the economy, improving the quality of life. The article discusses the approaches to the disclosure of the essence of the concept of “human development”, highlighted its integral components in the current economic conditions.
The proposed conclusions and proposals are based on the principles and methodology for calculating the Human Development Index (HDI). In addition, economic-statistical methods were used, as well as rating, comparison, and generalization; data of the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, the World Economic Forum, the Committee on Statistics of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan were used.
Based on the analysis of the dynamics of indicators characterizing life expectancy, level of education, gross national income per capita, the place of Central Asian countries in the global HDI ranking is determined, the problems and factors affecting its formation are identified, competitive advantages, disadvantages and prospects of human development in the states of the region are determined.
In particular, in Kazakhstan, despite the achievements in socio-economic development and increased welfare, among the priorities remains the need to implement a set of measures to expand the parameters of human development towards a qualitative change in this process in the context of the formation of an innovative economy.
Key words: human development, Central Asia, life expectancy, level of education, income.